Login or Register to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word or RTF file format.
  • The text empoys 1.5 line spacing, uses a 12-point standard font; employs italics instead of bold or underlining (except with URL addresses). All illustrations, figures and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in "About the Journal".
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

You may download the publication guidelines here.


The journal accepts submissions in a word-processor file format (OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF). Submissions will be accepted in two categories: research articles of 5.000 to 10.000 words and shorter articles of 2000-5000 words (including footnotes and reference list). Both may include images; an increase in the number of words, appendices or other extensions are negotiable.

Contributions should follow this pattern:

  • Title
  • Author(s)
  • Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Main text
  • Acknowledgements
  • Correspondence details
  • References
  • List of figures with captions

Author(s): All persons who have a reasonable claim to authorship must be named in the manuscript as co-authors; the corresponding author must be authorized by all co-authors to act as an agent on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication of the manuscript, and the order of names should be agreed by all authors.

Abstract: This should consist of 250 to 300 words of text and should describe the topics covered by the paper and the main thrust of discussion. The abstract should not be the same as an introduction.

Keywords: Each contribution should have 5 to 10 keywords.

Main text:

  • Submissions should be in English with consistent spelling (UK or US) and follow the publication guideline for punctuation, citation styles, and other matters apart from spelling.
  • Your contribution should be saved as unjustified text, at 1.5 line spacing.
  • Do not leave a double space between sentences or between a word and its following punctuation.
  • As font, use a common standard like Times New Roman (12 pt in the text, 10 pt in the footnotes).
  • For non-Roman scripts and other characters please use the same font as the rest of the text (preferably Times New Roman). Writing passages in Greek, Arabic, Middle English, and so on can be achieved by using the ‘Insert-Symbol’ option. For longer passages a UNICODE can be used; e.g. Greek script use Greek: TIMES-UNICODE (preferable) or ALKAIOS-UNICODE.
  • Do not install/turn off hyphenation in the word-processor you are using.
  • In the text always place the footnote number after the punctuation mark (comma, semicolon, full stop). Exception: if the footnote refers to a single word only, it is placed directly behind that word.
  • To emphasize words, use italics only, no bold or underlined characters. (In case more than one set of emphasis is needed, please consult the editorial team.)
  • Only use standard ASCII characters for quotation marks, hyphens, dashes and bullet points.
  • Please differentiate between – (dash) and - (hyphen). Dashes are used to separate parts of a sentence; hyphens are used to separate numbers (pages, years, verses etc.) or to form the connection of compound nouns (e.g. brother-in-law). Hyphens are not preceded or followed by a space; dashes are.
  • Use the English names of historical persons, also in the bibliography (e.g. Livy, Augustine of Hippo, Gregory the Great), unless this would cause confusion. If in doubt, use the original language (i.e. “Livorno” instead of “Leghorn”).
  • If abbreviations other than standard are used, please explain them when they are mentioned the first time.
  • Subheadings should be indicated by text, not by numbers. The use of more than two levels of subheadings is discouraged.

Acknowledgements: Please supply all details required by any funding and grant-awarding bodies as an Acknowledgement in a separate paragraph as follows:

For single agency grants: "This work was supported by the [Funding Agency] under Grant [number xxxx]."

For multiple agency grants: "This work was supported by the [Funding Agency 1] under Grant [number xxxx]; [Funding Agency 2] under Grant [number xxxx]; and [Funding Agency 3] under Grant [number xxxx]."

Correspondence details: All authors of a contribution should include their full names, affiliations, postal addresses and email addresses. One author should be identified as the corresponding author. Please give the affiliation where the research was conducted. If any of the authors moves affiliation during the peer review process, the new affiliation can be given as a footnote. Please include a short biographical statement of 2-3 sentences (optional).


  • Figures must be saved separate to text. Please do not embed figures in the manuscript file.
  • Please provide the highest quality figure format possible. Please be sure that all imported scanned material is scanned at the appropriate resolution: 1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi (240 pixels per cm/600 pixels per inch) for grayscale and 300 dpi (120 pixels per cm/300 pixels per inch) for colour.
  • Files should be saved as a TIFF format (tagged image file format).
  • The filename for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure1, Figure2a.
  • All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the manuscript (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. Figure 1(a), Figure 1(b)).
  • Mark their position in the text, as well as the captions. Use clear marks such as the following: [insert Fig. 1: Socrates, type A. Museo Nazionale, Naples].
  • Figure captions must be saved separately, as part of the file containing the complete text of the manuscript, and numbered correspondingly.
  • Please be sure that you have secured all the necessary permissions for use of illustrations in an open access e-journal with a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial‐NoDerivatives 4.0 (CC BY‐NC‐ND 4.0) licence.


Bibliographical references are provided in short quote in footnotes. The following rules should be used:

  • The author’s surname, the abbreviated title and the relevant page number(s) or figure or table number must be given in footnotes. For primary sources, the editor’s or translator’s name is added (see also section 4. Citation of primary sources).


When abbreviating you should:

  1. Give the authors’ names without initials.
  2. Drop the initial definite (‘The’) or indefinite (‘A’) article.
  3. Not change the order of the words.
  4. Not shorten titles of four words or fewer.


Reference list


Housley, Norman J., The Italian Crusades: The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusade against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343 (Oxford, 1982).

Housley, Italian Crusades, 34-42.

Chroust, Anton-Hermann, A Brief Account of the Reconstruction of Aristotle’s Protrepticus, Classical Philology 60/4 (1965) 229-239.

Chroust, Aristotle’s Protrepticus, 232.

Ibn al-Farra’, Rasul al-muluk, trans. Maria Vaiou, Diplomacy in the Early Islamic World: a tenth-century treatise on Arab-Byzantine Relations (London, 2013).

Ibn al-Farra’, Rasul al-muluk, 7, trans. Vaiou, 69.

Jean of St-Arnoul, Vita Iohannis abbatis Gorziensis, ed. Peter Christian Jacobsen, Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum 81 (Wiesbaden, 2016).

Jean of St-Arnoul, Vita Iohannis, 121.5-6, ed. Jacobsen, 432.


  • Where an article or book has two authors, both must be cited (‘X and Y’); e.g. Brogan and Smith, Ghirza, 37.
  • If there are more than two names in the reference, the entry is abbreviated, e.g. Büsing et al., Dame von Ficarolo, 308-312. However, in the bibliography at the end of the essay, the complete reference (all the authors) should be given. The ‘et al.’ should always be in italics.
  • Dual or multiple citations should be separated by a semi-colon, e.g. Bowman, Town Councils, 32; Ross and Downey, Reliquary of St. Marina, 43; Wood, Merovingian Kingdoms, 23-29.
  • If a work has no named author, it is permissible to use the name of the publishing organisation, e.g. European Commission, Growths, Creation and Values, 23.
  • If it is a reference to a newspaper article with no author, the name of the paper can be used, e.g. The Guardian 1996.
  • You cannot use ‘op. cit.’ in a footnote.
  • You may use ‘ibid.’ only within a footnote.
  • For foreign language publications, retain the diacritical signs; they can be found in the Insert/Symbol… menu of Microsoft Word; e.g. Hüseyinoğlu, Impacts of Transition, 72; Křesťan, Poslední husita' odchází, 9-14.
  • If you are using a personal communication (pers. comm.) in the text give first name(s) as well as surname and provide a date, e.g. Guillermo Algaze, pers. comm., 6 June, 2009. You should cite personal communication in the footnotes only and not in the reference list.


Citations in the text must be accompanied by a reference list or bibliography at the end. References are listed in alphabetical order of author’s names, regardless of the medium of the work. If you have listed more than one item by a specific author they should be listed alphabetically. Use capitals only for the first letters of the first word and proper names in article titles, and for the first and all significant words in book and journal titles; never capitalize words such as ‘and’, ‘of’, ‘the’ unless they are the first word. Provide inclusive pages rather than “f.”, “ff.”, “sq.” etc.

The reference list at the end of your paper should list ONLY the references you have directly cited in your work.

A reference list should contain the following information:

For books:

Author (surname, given name(s)), title (in italics), special edition (e.g. 2nd or revised), place of publication (city), date:

Lloyd, Seton, Foundations in the Dust. the Story of Mesopotamian Exploration (revised edition), (London, 1980).

If the name of the author is not known, the name of the publishing organization can be given:

Audit Commission, The Road to Wigan Pier? Managing Local Authority Museums and Art Galleries (London, 1991).

For series/occasional papers/monographs:

Cite as for books, but add the name of the series and publication number:

Conway, Bernhard, John McNabb and Nick Ashton (eds.), Excavations at Barnfield Pit, Swanscombe, 1968-72, British Museum Occasional Paper 194 (London, 1996).

For book reviews:

Author (surname, given name (s)), title (in italics), title of book reviewed (in italics) by author (first name/initials, surname). Reviewed in publication name (in italics) volume number, date, page number(s):

Crummy, Nina, Boudica Britannia. Rebel, War-leader and Queen by Miranda Aldhouse-Green. Reviewed in: Britannia 40 (2009) 370-371.

For a translation:

Author, title of book, translated from (language) by (translator), place of publication, date:

Pohl, Walter, The Avars. A Steppe Empire in Central Europe, 567-822, translated from German by William Sayers/Walter Pohl (Ithaca, NY, 2018).

Author, title of article, name of author or editor(s) (followed by ed. or eds.), title of book (in italics), translated from (language) by (translator), place of publication, date, page numbers:

Barthes, Roland, The Death of the Author. In: Roland Barthes, Image, Music, Text. Essays selected and translated from French by Stephen Heath (London, 1977) 142-148.

For conferences or collected papers:

Editor (followed by ed. or by eds. if there is more than one editor), title of volume (in italics), details of conference or other relevant details, including place of publication and date:

Cross, Frank M. (ed.), Symposia Celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Founding of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1900-1975) (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1979).

Bang, Peter Fibiger and Dariusz Kołodziejczyk (eds.), Universal Empire: A Comparative Approach to Imperial Culture and Representation in Eurasian History (Cambridge, 2012).

For articles in books, collected papers, conference proceedings, etc.:

Author, title of article, name of editor or editors (followed by ed. or eds.), title of book (in italics), place of publication, date, page numbers:

Oates, David, Tell Rimah, in: John Curtis (ed.), Fifty Years of Mesopotamian Discovery (London, 1982) 30-36.

If several articles of one publication are quoted, use in each case the full reference of the book in which they have been published.

For articles in periodicals:

Author, title of article, name of periodical (in italics), volume number, date, page numbers:

Please note that these guidelines apply to both paper and electronic articles. Note that the place of publication is not normally given for periodicals, and that ‘In’ is never used.

Richards, Suzanne, The Early Bronze Age, Biblical Archaeologist 50/1 (1987) 22-43.

For special issues of periodicals:

McKitterick, Rosamond (ed.), Being Roman after Rome, special issue Early Medieval Europe 22/4 (2014).

For newspaper articles:

Author, title of article, title of newspaper (in italics), day, month and year, page number(s):

Willsher, Kim, Broken camp, broken lives, as vigilante attack makes itself felt on Roma, The Guardian, 22 June 2014, 44.

Clayton, Jonathan, Rebels Face a New Threat – the Nomad Blue Warriors, Times Online, 8 March 2011. Retrieved on 10 November 2014:

For internet publications:

All internet publications are cited as if they were hard copy, i.e. by author’s name and title in the main text and full citation in the bibliography.

Cited by DOI

Heiser, Richard R., The court of the Lionheart on crusade, 1190-2, Journal of Medieval History 43/5 (2017) 505-522, DOI: 10.1080/03044181.2017.1378707.

Cited by URL

Heyes, Cressida, Identity Politics, in: Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Stanford, 2018). Accessed on 2 October 2018:

For an e-book:

Author, title, [medium] place of publication, date. Retrieved date, e-book source and web site address/URL.

Lewis, Mary E., The Bioarchaeology of Children. Perspectives from biological and forensic anthropology, [e-book] (Cambridge, 2007). Retrieved on 10 June 2009 from UCL Library Services e-books:

For a paper/essay available on-line but not in a publication:

Bernal, Martin, Afrocentrism and Two Historical Models for the Foundation of Ancient Greece, paper prepared for the Encounters with Ancient Egypt Conference, Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 16-18 December 2000. Retrieved on 11 November 2014:

For unpublished material (including theses, dissertations, reports and museum exhibition data):

Regardless of the format of the material, the word ‘unpublished’ should always be included:


Mace, Frances A., The Trade and Industry of Devonshire in the Later Middle Ages. Unpublished MA thesis (University of London, 1925).

Stamper, Paul A., Medieval Hampshire: Studies in Landscape History. Unpublished PhD thesis (Southampton University, 1983).

Unpublished internal reports:

Faith, Sabrina. Managing budgets (and other stories). Unpublished training report, Library Services University of Sussex (2009).

For unpublished primary sources see 4. Citation of primary sources

For maps:

Originator (may be cartographer, surveyor, compiler, editor, copier, maker, engraver, etc.), title, scale (should normally be given as a ratio), place of publication, date.

Great Britain. Ordnance Survey, Chichester and the South Downs: Bognor Regis and Arundel, 1: 50.000 (Southampton, 2005).

For Museum exhibition labels and panels:

British Museum  2014. Room 41, showcase 11, label 5: iron and silver buckle, Europe AD 300-1100 [Permanent exhibition at the British Museum].

For CD-ROMS, DVDs, videos, films and broadcasts:

Title, [medium], director (if relevant), country or origin, film studio or maker, date (other relevant details).

A Weave of Time: The Story of a Navajo Family 1938–1986 [Film]. Directed by Susan Fanshel. US: Documentary Educational Resources1986 (restored and remastered in 2014).

Place in the alphabetical reference list under the first word of the title.

For oral communication

In the footnote of your paper; please do not put any further entry in your list of references, e.g. Adam Lecturer, pers. comm., date.

There is no surviving medieval stonework anywhere on the outside of Westminster Abbey.1

1Cyril A. Price, pers. comm., 13 May 2006.

The following rules should be used to indicate works used in the reference list:

  • If the town/city in which an item is published is not well known or easily to be confused, you may want to add in a country, state or county. This information is usually provided for you in the book or in the library catalogue.
  • When two or more places of publication are given, document only the first one that appears on the title page.
  • Titles in non-English languages may be translated. The translation follows the title in square brackets and is not italicized; only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives are capitalized, e.g.: Poršnev, Boris, Feodalism i narodnye massy [Feudalism and the masses] (Moscow, 1964).
  • Titles in non-Roman script should also be Romanised (in one of the standard transliterations): Qiu, Yihao, 邱轶皓, 萨迪诗歌中的蒙古帝国,Sadi shige zhong de Menggu diguo [The Mongol Empire in Saʿdī’s Poems], Wenhui bao文汇报 (2016/4).
  • In the footnote please use the transliteration, e.g. Qiu, Sadi shige zhong, 23.
  • Indicate the language of the work in square brackets, if it is different from the language of the title, e.g.:Yang, Qiao, Reading the Yuan Sky: Semu Astronomers and Cultural Exchange in Yuan China, Yuanshi Luncong, 14 (2014) 390-401 [in Chinese].


For names:

  • Ancient and medieval authors’ names and works in Greek, Latin and other ancient languages should not be abbreviated. If an author’s name is exceptionally long, use an established short form in the footnotes.
  • Use the English names of ancient and medieval authors, unless the native form is more suitable (do not over-Anglicize); e.g. use Bede, Paul the Deacon, Augustine of Hippo, but Anastasius Bibliothecarius (not Anastase the Librarian).

For books, chapters or years:

  • Books, chapters or years in sources should be given directly after citing the source, i.e. Annales regni Francorum, a. 785, ed. Kurze, 70:. Years are to be designated with an ‘a.’, lines with ‘l.’ or ‘ll.’ and columns with ‘col.’; e.g. PL 103, col. 453C.
  • Books, sections, chapters or paragraphs do not require a specification unless a special case makes it necessary; e.g. Einhard, Vita Caroli, 3, ed. NN, <pages>.
  • Books, sections, chapters and paragraphs are separated by periods and follow the title in descending order; e.g. Jean of St-Arnoul, Vita Iohannis, 121.5-6, ed. Jacobsen, 432.

For footnotes:

  • Short citations in the footnotes should contain: author, work title, indication of passage, ed./trans. last name of editor/translator/etc., page numbers.
  • In the footnotes, please use the title of a work in established Latin or Latinised versions, e.g. Homer, Ilias or Gregory of Tours, Decem libri historiarum or Gregory the Great, Dialogi; also Theophanes, Chronographia (not in Greek script and not Chronography).

For editions and series of editions:

  • If the edition is part of a series, the series title is cited after the indication of the editor (in Roman letters, not in italics).
  • If series are abbreviated, add a list of these abbreviations at the beginning of the bibliography, e.g.:


    Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina, ed. Jacques-Paul Migne (Paris, 1844-1890).

  • Abbreviated series: NO comma between PL, CC SL, etc. and the respective volume; e.g. ‘PL 103, col. 453C’ or ‘ed. J. Fraipont, CC SL 91A (Turnhout, 1968) <pages>’.
  • With PL and PG no editor, place or year needs to be given. Also there is no ed. PL, just plain PL.
  • If there is more than one editor of a volume, please cite as ‘X and Y’ or ‘X, Y and Z’.
  • For identical names of two editions, please use ’=’; e.g. Codex epistolaris, ed. Gundlach, 476, ll. 8-15 = ed. Hartmann and Orth-Müller, 32.

For biblical citations:

  • Please give the book’s name in the full English version and add chapters and verses in Arabic numerals: ‘Matthew 15.3’; but use ‘II Corinthians 2.3’.

For unpublished sources/manuscripts:

  • The citation should contain place-name, name of library, shelfmark.
  • Manuscripts: Both in the text and in the notes the abbreviation ‘MS’ (plural ‘MSS’) can be omitted when it precedes a shelfmark. Cite the shelfmark according to the practice of the given library. Folio numbers should include a recto/verso reference, abbreviated and written on the line, not as a superscript. The abbreviation of ‘folio’ is ‘fol.’ (plural ‘fols.’). Example: Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 4117, fols. 108v-145r.


Reference list:


Regino of Prüm, Chronicon, ed. Friedrich Kurze, MGH SS rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum 50 (Hanover, 1890, reprinted 1989).

Regino of Prüm, Chronicon, <year>, ed. Kurze, <pages>.

Augustine of Hippo, Epistulae, ed. Alois Goldbacher, CSEL 34, 2 vols (Vienna, 1895-1898).

Augustine, Epistula, <number>, ed. Goldbacher, <pages>.

Adamnan, De locis sanctis, ed. Ludwig Bieler, CC SL 175 (Turnhout, 1965) 175-234.

Adamnan, De locis sanctis, <passage>, ed. Bieler, <pages>.

Alcuin, Vita Willibrordi, ed. Hans-Joachim Reischmann, Willibrord: Apostel der Friesen (Darmstadt, 1989).

Alcuin, Vita Willibrordi, <passage>, ed. Reischmann, <pages>.

Jerome, Vita Malchi monachi captivi, ed. Edgardo M. Morales, trans. Pierre Leclerc, Jérôme. Trois vies de moines, SC 508, Paris (2007) 184-211. English translation: Marie Ligouri Ewald, Life of Malchus by St. Jerome, in: Roy J. Deferrari (ed.), Early Christian Biographies, The Fathers of the Church 15 (Washington, D.C., 1952) 281-297.

Jerome, Vita Malchi, <passage>, ed. Morales and Leclerc, <pages>.



Please be sure that you have secured all the necessary permissions for use of third party material. In the case of co-authored contributions, please be sure that you have consulted with your co-authors and that you have been guaranteed to sign on their behalf.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.